• independence versus dependence.
• autonomy versus shame & doubt.
• identity versus role confusion.
• a particular behavior usually produces a particular consequence.
• classically conditioned responses are learned for life.
• reinforcement always follows a response.
• understanding how your behavior affects others.
• observation & imitation.
• cooperation with others.
7. The central dispute in the study of human development is
8. Parents that spend a lot of time structuring their child's environment
are emphasizing the
9. Classical conditioning is to _________ as operant conditioning is to _________.
10. One who takes an eclectic approach
11. How do minitheories differ from grand theories of development?
Unlike the more comprehensive grand theories, minitheories explain
only part of development.
Unlike grand theories, which usually reflect the thinking of many
researchers, minitheories tend to stem from one person.
Only the recency of the research on which they are based keeps
minitheories from having the sweeping influence of grand theories.
They differ in all the above ways.
12. Psychoanalytic theory views intrinsic drives & motives as the foundation for
13. Vygotsky's theory has been criticized for
failing to recognize how much children can learn when encouraged.
neglecting the biological processes.
overlooking how people learn from each other.
ignoring the dynamic interaction that occurs between people.
14. We are more likely to imitate the behavior of others if we particularly admire & identify with them. This belief is expressed in
15. According to Piaget, an infant 1st comes to know the world through:
16. Of the following terms, which one does not describe a stage of Freudís theory of childhood sexuality?
17. Behaviorists have found that they can often solve a personís psychological problems by:
18. When an individualís existing understanding no longer fits his or her present experiences, the result is called
19. The zone of proximal development refers to:
the influence of a pleasurable stimulus on behavior.
the tendency of a child to model an admired adults behavior.
a stage during which a child exhibits preoperational thinking.
the range of skills a child can do with assistance but cannot
21. Freud is to oral as Erikson is to _________________.
Neurosis is the inability to tolerate ambiguity. Sigmund Freud
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