Self test # 5. - The First Two Years: Biosocial Development 

Note: These questions are part of a larger data base of questions on Chapter 5 
& are selected to represent the type of question you should expect on unit exam two. 
You can, in fact, expect to see many of these very same questions on that exam. 
Exam questions, however, may deal with topics not covered in the self tests or in lectures
but are discussed in your textbook. You are responsible for the content of your text book 
plus the content of lectures, interactive activities, & material on the web site.

Use these sample questions to test yourself & to practice for the test. 

1. During the 1st year of life, the typical baby's brain development is 
characterized by a(n): 

 large increase in the number of neurons. 
 thinning out of the myelin sheathing of the neurons. 
 increase in the number of connections between neurons. 
 shift in functioning from the cerebral cortex to the midbrain & cerebellum. 

2. At birth the average infant measuers about ?

 20 inches. 
 18 inches. 
   15 inches. 
   12 inches.

3. Which of the following is true about the newborn's visual acuity? 

 - Her visual acuity is around 20/30. 
 - Her peripheral vision is fully developed. 
 - Her vision for near objects is better than her vision for far objects. 
 - Her vision is better when she's staring at stationary objects than when 
  she's tracking moving objects. 

4. Research on SIDS has shown that babies should be: 

 fed right before bedtime. 
 kept in a warm bedroom. 
 put to sleep on their backs. 
 swaddled tightly. 

5. Which of the following toddlers is employing a gross motor skill? 

 - Kim, who is looking at a pop-up book & laughing uproariously. 
 - Kurt, who is creeping backwards down the stairs on all fours. 
 - Kyle, who is licking the melting ice cream off the sides of a cone. 
 - Robert, who is sitting on the rug & methodically picking up every 
   piece of lint & examining it. 

6. Which disease has disappeared completely? 

 smallpox 
 polio 
 tuberculosis 
 diphtheria 

7. Which of the following is true concerning early infant sex differences? 

 Boys generally walk before girls 
 Girls generally sit upright before boys. 
 Girls generally stand upright before boys 
 Boys are generally more active than girls. 

8. An involuntary response to a stimulus is known as a: 

 habit. 
 marasmus. 
 perception. 
 reflex. 

9. When his mother first took two-month-old Kyle to visit his aunt's apartment, 
he spent a lot of time staring at his aunt's colorful dress. As time passed, he 
looked less at the dress and more at his surroundings. This change in Kyle's 
behavior most likely reflects: 

 conditioning. 
 habituation. 
 assimilation. 
 symbolic thought. 

10. Otitis media is a: 

 portion of the brain used for hearing. 
 portion of the ear used for hearing. 
 device used to help hearing. 
 middle ear infection. 

11. Fine motor skills are those that: 
 
 require small body movements. 
 require practice. 
 use three or more muscles. 
 involve balance. 

12. That genes affect motor skills is shown by the fact that: 

 boys reach milestones before girls. 
 identical twins are likely to master skills at the same time. 
 undernourished children walk later than other children. 
 fraternal twins are more alike than other brothers or sisters. 

13. Visual improvement in the 1st year: 

 is not dramatic. 
 does not occur. 
 results more from changes in the brain than in the eye. 
 results from changes in the eye's structure. 

14. By what age are taste & smell most sensitive? 

 a few days 
 late in infancy 
 5 years 
 10 years 

15. Marasmus is the result of: 

 lack of a specific vitamin. 
 protein-calorie malnutrition in middle childhood. 
 protein-calorie malnutrition in early childhood. 
 iodine malnutrition during pregnancy. 

16. All the nerve cells a human brain will ever need are present: 

 at birth. 
 at conception. 
 at age 5 or 6. 
 about 1 month following conception. 

17. Dendrite is to axon as ________ is to ________. 

 input; output 
 output; input 
 synapse; myelin 
 myelin; synapse 

18. Climbing is to using a crayon as ______ is to ______. 

 fine motor skills; gross motor skills 
 gross motor skills; fine motor skills 
 reflex; fine motor skills 
 reflex; gross motor skills 

19. A chemical that carries information between nerve cells in 
the brain is a: 

 synapse. 
 dendrite. 
 neurotransmitter. 
 neuron. 

20. The phenomenon by which the brain continues to grow even though 
the body stops growing in a malnourished child is called: 

 cortex squeeze. 
 head-sparing. 
 axon overgeneration. 
 transient exuberance. 
 
21. A child generally is said to be average if he or she is:

 at the 25th percentile.
 at the 50th percentile.
 between the 25th & 40th percentiles.
 between the 60th & 80th percentiles.

22. Transient exuberance & pruning demonstrate that:

 - good nutrition is essential to healthy development.
 - the pace of acquisition of motor skills varies from child to child.
 - brain structure & growth depend partly on the infant's experience.
 - Newborns sleep more than older children so their brain grows faster with 
   less pruning of neurons.
 
23. Infants typically double their weight by the _____ month & triple it by the _____ month.

  first; second 
   second; third 
    third; sixth 
     fourth; twelfth
   
 24. That the brain is the last part of the body to be damaged by malnutrion is called;
 
   brain guarding. 
    head-sparing. 
     electrical head protection. 
      brain exuberance.
    
25. At birth the average infant weights ____ pounds & at two years ___ pounds.

  5.5; 20 
   6.5; 25 
    7.5; 30 
     8.0; 32
   
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                              Robert C. Gates