Self test #16 - Adolescence: Psychosocial Development

1. One of the first steps in self-definition involves

 setting a career goal.
  finding a sexual partner.
  consistency among emotions, thoughts, & actions.
   separating from parents emotionally & physically.

2. According to Erikson, adolescence is the stage of

 intimacy versus isolation.
 integration versus separation.
 identity versus role confusion.
 independence versus neediness.

3. Identity foreclosure is

 refusing to vote.
 joining a religious cult.
 dropping out of school.
 choosing a career path different from that urged by parents & counselors.

4. Negative identity can lead a teen to

 experiment with a variety of roles.
 take a role that is the opposite of social expectations.
 accept their culture's goals without self-examination.
 have few commitments to goals or values and little motivation.

5. Identity diffusion is often characterized by

 apathy,
 foreclosure.
 delinquency.
 rejection of social values.

6. One way to legitimatize a moratorium is to

 have a baby.
 get married.
 smoke marijuana.
 join the Air Force.

7. Ed tends to be sexist, racist, & homophobic. He has a strong sense of ethnic identity; his identity status 
is most likely 

 in a moratorium. 
 one of achievement. 
 in foreclosure. 
 subject to diffusion. 

8. A typical sequence of identity status is

 diffusion, moratorium, achievement.
 diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium.
 moratorium, foreclosure, achievement.
 negative, moratorium, foreclosure.

9. Achieving an identity

 can take ten years or more.
 usually take three or four years.
 is often preceded by a mental breakdown.
 seems more difficult for boys than girls.

10. Which of the following alternate identity statuses has the highest levelof self-esteem associated with it?

 negative
 diffusion
 foreclosure
 moratorium

11. Identity is easiest to achieve in a society that

 agrees on basic values, and social change is rapid.
 agrees on basic values and social change is slow.
 disagrees on basic values, and social change is rapid.
 disagrees on basic values, and social change is slow.

12. In most modern & postindustrial societies, cultural consensus

 is common. but continuity is rare.
 is rare, but continuity typically exists.
 and continuity are common.
 and continuity are rare.

13. That parents want continuity of their values & adolescents want independence reflects

 the family stake.
 the generational stake.
 a generation gap.
 intergenerational strife.

14. Parents are most likely to bicker with

 older adolescents.
 late maturing adolescents
 girls rather than boys.
 the latter born rather than the firstborn.

15. What doesn't the peer group become for normal adolescents?

 a self-help group.
 a substitute family.
 a sounding board for value definition.
 a mirror in which they can check own progress.

16. Peer Pressure

 always involves negative activities.
 means wanting to conform to your friends.
 increases throughout adolescence.
 has no effect on adults.

17. Any deliberate act of self-destruction that does not result 
in death is called

 attempted suicide.
 suicide ideation.
 parasuicide.
 premeditated suicide.

18. Which of the following about adolescent suicide is true?

 the rate is triple what it was in 1960.
 the rate is twice that of adults.
 almost all teens who seriously consider suicide attempt it.
 the present rate is about 1 in 500 yearly.

19. Regarding juvenile arrest rates

 - boys are twice as likely to be arrested as girls.
 - delinquency increases throughout the teen years.
 -  most adolescents admit to breaking a law for which they could have been arrested.
 - African-American youth are arrested seven times as often  as European-Americans

20. In examining victimization, it was found that

 adults are more likely than adolescents to be victims.
 most victims of adolescent crime are adolescents.
 children are more likely to be victims than adolescents.
 few adolescents are aggressors or victims of crime.

21. Which of the following is not one of the common types of "false selves"?

 pleasing false self
 religious false self
 acceptable false self
 experimental false self

22. Of Erikson's four identity statuses, which of the following is characterized by not questioning & high commitment?

 diffusion
 foreclosure
 moratorium
 achievement

23. Individuals with which of the following identity status or statuses are considered to have an identity?

 achievement only
 achievement & foreclosure
 achievement & moratorium
 achievement, foreclosure, & moratorium

24. Which of the following about the prevalence of internalizing problems and externalizing problems among adolescent 
males & females is a true statement?

 - Internalizing problems are more common among males, & externalizing
   problems are more common among females.
 - Both internalizing problems & externalizing problems are more common
   among males than among females.
 - Internalizing problems are more common among females, & externalizing
    problems are more common among males.
 - Both internalizing problems & externalizing problems are more common
   among males than among females.

25. Suicidal ideation refers to:

 - thinking about suicide
 - feelings of sadness or hopelessness.
 - a deliberate act of self-destruction that does not end in death.
 - the belief that suicide is an effective way of getting back at one's 
   parents or peers.

26. How would Anna Freud describe adolescent rebellion & defiance?

 They are normal.
 They are problematic.
 They signify developmental delay.
 They are evidence of being stuck in the latency period.

27. Arrest statistics do not accurately reflect the prevalence of adolescent delinquency because:

 police exaggerate juvenile crimes.
 older criminals lie about their age.
 many offenses never come to police attention.
 more juvenile offenses lead to arrest than do adult crimes.

28. That parents want adolescents to be loyal to the family & that adolescents want to become independent reflects:

 the family stake.
 a generation gap.
 generational stake.
 intergenerational strife.

29. Which of the following is the general pattern of heterosexual attraction?

 - small mixed-sex group, pairing off of couples, loose association of boys'
   & girls' same-sex groups
 - loose association of boys' & girls' same-sex groups, pairing off of couples,
   small mixed-sex group
 - loose association of boys' & girls' same-sex groups, small mixed-sex
   group, pairing off of couples
 - small mixed-sex group, loose association of boys' & girls' same-sex
   groups, pairing off of couples

30. Which of the following delays the peak of parent-child conflict?

 single parenthood
 school achievement
 parental lack of concern
 cultural encouragement of child dependency

31. Dimensions of family qualities in parent-teenager relationships include all of the following except:

 social structures.
 support.
 control.
 conflict.

32. The basic sequence in romantic attraction seems to:

 vary greatly between cultures.
 follow the same timeline across cultures.
 not manifest itself consistently across cultures.
 be biologically based, & thus consistent across cultures.

33. False & contradictory selves are _____ common at the _____ of adolescence.

 less common; end
 more common; end
 less common; beginning
 equally; beginning & end

34. Which of the following is the most accurate statement regarding identity status?

 - Both diffusion & foreclosure are questioning statuses with commitment.
 - The statuses are straightforward: vocational, sexual, religious, & political.
 - An adolescent can be at various identity statuses simultaneously.
 - The 4 statuses are: identity achievement, moratorium, diffusion,
    negative identity.

35. Adolescents who have a controversial status among their friends are:

 uniformly disliked
  mostly liked by their peers
   neither liked nor disliked by their peers
    liked by some of their peers & disliked by others

                         --------------------------------------
                               Robert C. Gates